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Jan 20 2015

Importance of Immediate CPR

Current research states that the sooner you begin compressions in providing CPR to a victim who is in cardiac arrest - the higher the chances of survival. Compressions keep oxygenated blood flowing through the victims system, providing much needed oxygen to the brain and essential organs. One of the keys to the Cardiac Chain of Survival is early recognition, immediate activation of the EMS system and immediate CPR.

We may have learned just a few years ago the CPR sequence is ABC - check airway, quality of breathing, and begin chest compressions. Today, the American Heart Association has changed those guidelines to CAB - start with compressions right away and then gice 2 breaths.

For 1 person rescuer 30:2 is the ratio - 30 compressions to 2 breaths. This is for adults, children and infants.

For 2 person rescuer 30:2 for adults

For 2 person rescuer 15:2 for children and infants.

It is vital to take a class to learn the proer techniques for providing high-quality and efficient CPR! Take a class and learn how to save lives!

Dec 01 2012

Administering Emergency Oxygen

Emergency oxygen, when properly administered, is used in many breathing and cardiac emergencies. Emergency oxygen can help to improve hypoxia (when insufficient oxygen is reaching the cells) and can help to lesson pain and breathing discomfort.

Emergency oxygen is delivered with a series of systems. These include: and oxygen cylinder, a pressure regulator with flowmeter and a delivery device, which is what the victim breaths through (usually a bag-valve-mask.)

Emergency oxygen units can be available without prescription provided they contain at least a 15-minute supply of oxygen and are designed to deliver a preset flow rate. If one is using a variable flow system, speciality training is required.

Of course, caution and precaution must be utilized when using emergency oxygen. Oxygen cylinders must be inspected for leaks, abnormal bulging, rust or corrosion. All of the seals should be routinely inspected as well.

It is highly recommended to get proper training through a certified Red Cross instructor who has Oxygen Administration training.

Nov 01 2012

Abrasion First Aid: Tilton's tips for cleaning & dressing.

by Buck Tilton ( cofounder of the Wilderness Institute)

It is important for the outdoor enthusiast to carry the knowledge and material for treating "road rash" for several reasons. One is they hurt, and proper treatment reduces pain, eventually. Another is that untreated abrasions leave more noticeable scars. A third reason is to prevent infection, and few wounds are more prone to infection than an abrasion.

The time it takes to properly treat an abrasion is directly proportional to the size and strength of the victim. Wimpy people can be held down while they are being vocally abusive as their wounds are thoroughly cleaned and bandaged. With large, powerful patients, you'll want to get in and get out fast.


  • Irrigate the wound to remove loose foreign material. Water will do fine, and any water safe to drink is safe to clean wounds. This is best done with an irrigation syringe, a device that comes in most first aid kits. Or fill a plastic bag with water and punch a pinhole in it. The idea is to create a forceful stream to wash out dirt and debris. In the process, you may, also, be washing out some of the germs.

  • Vigorously scrub the abrasion. Some first aid kits have cleansing pads especially made for abrasions and containing a topical anesthetic. Cleansing pads allow you to wipe the abrasion gently first, and wait about five minutes for the anesthetic to work. Warning: the scrubbing is still quite painful, but absolutely necessary for safeguarding against infection and tattooing (a unique form of scarring left by embedded material). You can scrub with any clean cloth and any soap. Scrub until nothing remains visible in the wound except raw meat.

  • Rinse the wound again. If the scrubbing has started some bleeding, you can just let it bleed or apply pressure with a sterile gauze pad or sponge. Letting it bleed might be a bit better since the patient is doing a little involuntary self-cleaning of the wound.

  • When you have a clean, non-bleeding wound, apply a thin layer of antibiotic ointment (not cream, but ointment).

  • Dress and bandage the wound. Dressings go directly on the abrasion, and any non-adherent dressing will work. Spenco 2nd Skin works really well, soothing with its coolness, protecting with its rubbery-ness, allowing you to see through to watch the wound for signs of infection. It can be left in place as long as no infection shows up. Over the dressing goes the bandage. You can tape a gauze pad over the dressing, but elastic wraps work better, being more secure. Stretch gauze is probably the best: it conforms easily to the shape of the abraded body part, it is lightweight, it is more difficult to put it on too tight (which can cut off healthy blood flow).

Human skin is tough and resilient, fortunately, and abrasions, with a little pre-planning, are easy to manage.

We're lucky that way . . . er, I mean, it could be worse!

© 1999 Buck Tilton. All Rights Reserved.